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Antibiotic resistance is a topic that is of growing concern in the field of medicine. Antibiotics act as growth blockers or act as toxins, killing the organism they affect. These biological weapons generate selective pressure leading to the current antibiotic crisis. This selective pressure causes resistant organisms to begin to emerge and over generations antibiotic resistance can develop and be spread among a bacterial population.

One of the key factors contributing to antibiotic resistance in bacteria is the ability for some bacteria to form and shield themselves within biofilms. Biofilms are masses of bacteria protected by a polysaccharide/ extracellular DNA matrix, can help prevent the penetration of antibiotics to the cells within and can unknowingly lead to lingering, viable cells that can cause further infections. Biofilms can adhere to surfaces in hospitals and can become resistant to even the harshest disinfectants. In hospitals nosocomial infections can lead to chronic illnesses and can be pointed towards surfaces contaminated with biofilms that resist antibiotics as well as disinfectants.

Publication Date



biofilm, garlic, ginseng, antibiotics, antibiotic resistance, Escherichia coli, Myxococcus xanthus


Biology | Plant Biology


Presented at:

  • 94th Annual Meeting of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science at Indiana University of Pennsylvania. March 2018. Indiana, PA.
  • 2018 Harrisburg University Research Symposium

2018 2nd Place: Identifying the Effectiveness of Plant Extracts for Treating Biofilms of Escherichia coli and Myxococcus xanthus



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